The people believed they were standing in their own graves, and this language was significant for what God did next. God divided the waters of the sea into two standing walls , and the Israelites crossed on dry ground , In the Garden of Eden, the tree of life held out hope for a kind of life Adam and Eve did not yet have. The tree of life was a promise of immortal bodily life. Adam and Eve were embodied image-bearers, but they lived in mortal bodies in the garden.
The tree of life indicated that another kind of bodily life was possible, a superior and immortal existence. But how could God keep this promise if Abraham died not owning more than a burial plot in the promised land? When Isaac died, Jacob and Esau buried him in that same cave ; Near his own death, Joseph requested that his bones be carried from Egypt to Canaan ; Heb These Genesis characters believed burial in Canaan was important because God would keep his promise to give them the land as an everlasting possession.
These hopeful men would experience new bodily life that enabled the fulfillment of the land-promise.
And can it be that I should gain
The point of demonstrating that there were promises yet outstanding to the patriarchs was that God must be capable of fulfilling them in the world yet to come. Therefore the promise to eat death implied resurrection. Liberation was resurrection. It was a prototype of ultimate redemption, of eschatological liberation: resurrection from the dead. Hos 6; Ezek The OT authors advanced individual hope through the experiences of Israel. Having considered the corporate example of the people being liberated in Exodus, now reflect on the individual story of Joseph at the end of Genesis.
His scheming brothers sold him into slavery Gen Yet God prospered Joseph. Eventually Joseph rose to power in Egypt with only Pharaoh being greater Pharaoh set Joseph over all Egypt, putting a ring on his hand, fine linens on his body, and a golden chain around his neck From the death of captivity, Joseph had experienced a resurrection. In the mind of this king, God alone could cure leprosy because God had the power to kill and make alive—and a leper being cured would be like rising from death!
Curing leprosy was like resurrection. What seemed impossible to man could be overcome by the power of God. In the Torah, no one was physically raised from death. Three occurrences in the historical books merit our attention, however. Since there was no previous story of someone coming back from the dead, these episodes were unprecedented.
And consider what these reports meant about death: physical death was not undoable. Its jaws, though clenched tightly over its prey, could be pried open at the command of God. The NT evidence confirms the importance of these OT resurrections as pointers to the general resurrection of the dead. And both references use anastasis. The writer could have ordered the victories and sufferings any way he deemed appropriate, so it is not incidental that the final victory a and the first suffering b refer to resurrection. The former—resurrection to mortal bodily life—is a type and foreshadowing of the latter—resurrection to immortal bodily life.
Discernible is the dependence on Isaiah where there is reference to the blind, deaf, and lame and Isaiah where good news is preached to the poor. He had healed a leper , a lame man , the blind , the deaf , and he had preached good news to the poor Note, then, that Jesus alludes to an Isaianic promise of general resurrection when he had only performed a temporal resurrection in his ministry. This allusion to Isaiah does not exhaust the hope of that OT promise, but it does confirm that the eschatological restorative and transformative power of God is already at work in the world.
Temporal resurrections are signs pointing to the hope that one day bodies would rise never to die again. As far back as Genesis 3, exile denoted death. The first couple did not immediately die physically, though God sent them from the land garden.
Since death is viewed dynamically by the biblical authors, the exile of Adam and Eve was a kind of death. Sin affected mankind both spiritually and physically Gen ; ; Rom Eve anticipated the fulfillment of this prophecy see , , and this hope was passed from generation to generation.
The pairing of resurrection language with a return from exile is also evident in Psalm The return and restoration of Israel would be resurrection from the dead. Ezekiel prophesied over the bones, and they came together, bone to bone, followed by sinews, flesh, and skin Breath entered the bones, and the resurrected people stood on their feet Who is this army?
The return from exile was resurrection from the dead! God is asserting his uniqueness over against idols which can do nothing. There is no hint of danger or sickness in the context of Psalm 16, so David was hoping for something more than the postponement of death.
The Book of Malachim I (King 1): Chapter 19
God would vindicate the righteous, showing faithfulness to his own, and if this could be fully attained only after death, then God could be trusted to raise the dead. Psalm 16 should be read as a hope for rescue after death. You who dwell in the dust, awake and sing for joy! For your dew is a dew of light, and the earth will give birth to the dead.
Life After Death - What Is The Eternal Destiny Of The Wicked?
He interprets Daniel as a prediction that everyone—believer and unbeliever—would be raised either to life or judgment. First, God has the power to keep his promises. In no way would death prove God a promise-breaker. Second, resurrection hope is rooted in the Torah. So while interpreters may be willing to see glimpses of resurrection hope in the Psalms and Prophets, or at least in the book of Daniel, we should adjust our affirmations to fit those of Jesus and the apostles.
Either those characters are wrong, or higher-critical scholars are wrong. When the OT evidence is considered, the higher-critical consensus is a seriously deficient position. The hope of resurrection was sown as early as the Torah—indeed, even in Genesis. The old story that his breakdown stemmed from syphilis is now widely doubted; a likelier explanation is a hereditary neurological or vascular disorder. Neurologists in Belgium and Switzerland have concluded that he had cadasil , a genetic condition that causes repeated strokes. Nietzsche would soon assume a professorship in Basel, at the astonishingly young age of twenty-four, but he jumped at the chance to join the Wagner operation.
He then broke away, declaring his intellectual independence first with coded critiques and then with unabashed polemics. Accounts of this immensely complicated relationship are too often distorted by prejudice on one side or another. Nietzscheans and Wagnerians both tend to off-load ideological problems onto the rival camp; Prideaux succumbs to this temptation. Wagner, too, revered Greek culture, but he was fundamentally a man of the theatre, and tailored his ideals to the realities of the stage. At the first Bayreuth Festival, in , Nietzsche was crestfallen to discover that a viable theatre operation required the patronage of the nouveau riche and the fashionable.
Personal differences between the two men provide amusing anecdotes. Nietzsche made sporadic attempts at musical composition, one of which caused Wagner to have a laughing fit. The music is not very good, but it is not as bad as all that. But the disagreements went much deeper, revealing a rift between ideologies and epochs. Wagner embodied the nineteenth century, in all its grandeur and delusion; Nietzsche was the dynamic, destructive torchbearer of the twentieth. When they first met, they shared an admiration for the philosophical pessimism of Arthur Schopenhauer, who saw a world governed by the insatiable striving of the will.
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Only through the renunciation of worldly desire, Schopenhauer posited, can we free ourselves from our incessant drives. Aesthetic experience is one avenue to self-overcoming—an idea that the art-besotted Nietzsche seized upon. Wagner, by contrast, claimed to value compassion above all other emotions.
In its place, Nietzsche praises hardness, force, cruelty. These views made Wagner wince, as the diaries of Cosima Wagner, his wife, attest. Nietzsche not only rejected the sublime longings of nineteenth-century Romanticism; he also jettisoned the teleology of historical progress that had governed European thought since the Renaissance, and that had found its most formidable advocate in Hegel.
Instead, Nietzsche grounded himself in a version of naturalism—the post-Darwinian conviction that humans are an animal species, led by no transcendent purpose. Between his final meeting with Wagner, in , and his mental collapse of , Nietzsche lived the life of an intellectual ascetic. Health problems caused him to resign his professorship in ; from then on, he adopted a nomadic life style, summering in the Swiss Alps and wintering, variously, in Genoa, Rapallo, Venice, Nice, and Turin.
He wrote a dozen books, of increasingly idiosyncratic character, poised between philosophy, aphoristic cultural criticism, polemic, and autobiography. The landscape of the mind consumed his attention.
He thought the way others feel. Translating Nietzsche is a difficult task, but the swagger of his prose, with its pithy strikes and sudden swerves, can be fairly readily approximated in English. Kaufmann, in his translations, brought to bear a strong, pugnacious style. A series of translations from Cambridge University Press covered the gaps.
The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses (Part 2)
These show a less awe-inspiring side of the philosopher, as he jots down items from his reading and delivers utterances esoteric, mundane, and bizarre:. Woman is so little satisfied with herself that she would rather permit herself to be beaten than—. The last thought is left blessedly unfinished. Should I show it to you in my mirror? A solution for all its riddles?